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Lucas Howard
Lucas Howard

Rails Secret Key Base Generate


I was recently asked what is secret key base used for in Rails applications and why not secure value of it (or even worse - the public one!) creates a security issue. That was a really good question, I remember how it was a serious threat years ago, especially before introducing secrets.yml in Rails 4.1 - at that time by default secret_token initializer was generated and the secret key was directly stored there. The result was that in many open source projects secret key was publicly available creating a great security risk. Let's take a look how exposed secret key base could be exploited.




Rails Secret key base Generate


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and send carefully crafted cookie pretending that I'm logged in as the user with id 10! The question is: how would I do it? Ok, maybe I have a secret key base, but what exactly should be done with it? What are the necessary steps to generate such a cookie that will be successfully decrypted later by Rails application?


As you now know, having secure and securely stored secret key base is an essential thing for the security of the app. Rails applications are now much more secure by default than it used to be and seems that accidentally exposing secret key base is not likely to happen. Nevertheless, it is still a very important thing to be aware of.


Use your existing secret_key_base from the secret_token.rb initializer toset the SECRET_KEY_BASE environment variable for whichever users run the Railsapp in production mode. Alternately, you can simply copy the existing secret_key_base from the secret_token.rb initializer to secrets.yml under the production section, replacing ''.


Please note that you should wait to set secret_key_base until you have 100% of your userbase on Rails 4.x and are reasonably sure you will not need to rollback to Rails 3.x. This is because cookies signed based on the new secret_key_base in Rails 4.x are not backwards compatible with Rails 3.x. You are free to leave your existing secret_token in place, not set the new secret_key_base, and ignore the deprecation warnings until you are reasonably sure that your upgrade is otherwise complete.


If you are relying on the ability for external applications or Javascript to be able to read your Rails app's signed session cookies (or signed cookies in general) you should not set secret_key_base until you have decoupled these concerns.


Everything is commented out and nothing is specified above. You have to specify secret_key_base beneath production which is a secret key used for Cookie encryption. It is recommended to generate the secret key by using "rails secret".


Then create config/secret.yml in your application and include the secret key base as an environment variable. This variable will be created on your production server. Remember not to commit this file to your repository.


By using credentials, we can now effortlessly access secret configurations inside the application without worrying about encryption, decryption, unknowingly committing configurations to remote repositories, etc. Every new major version of Rails brings us a ton of features. It also provides the option to customize it based on our requirements to a great extent.


This page is only visible in development mode. Add some content to the front page of the application to support production deployment to Elastic Beanstalk. Use rails generate to create a controller, route, and view for your welcome page.


Signature is a unique key that identifies the service which creates the header. In this case, the signature of the token will be a base-64 encoded version of the Rails application's secret key (Rails.application.secrets.secret_key_base). Because each application has a unique base key, this secret key serves as the token signature.


Puma caught this error: Missing secret_key_base for 'development' environment, set this value in config/secrets.yml (RuntimeError)/Users/marque/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.4.1@learn-rails/gems/railties-5.1.6/lib/rails/application.rb:510:in validate_secret_key_config!'/Users/marque/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.4.1@learn-rails/gems/railties-5.1.6/lib/rails/application.rb:247:inenv_config'/Users/marque/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.4.1@learn-rails/gems/railties-5.1.6/lib/rails/engine.rb:692:in build_request'/Users/marque/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.4.1@learn-rails/gems/railties-5.1.6/lib/rails/application.rb:518:inbuild_request'/Users/marque/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.4.1@learn-rails/gems/railties-5.1.6/lib/rails/engine.rb:521:in call'/Users/marque/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.4.1@learn-rails/gems/puma-3.12.0/lib/puma/configuration.rb:225:incall'/Users/marque/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.4.1@learn-rails/gems/puma-3.12.0/lib/puma/server.rb:658:in handle_request'/Users/marque/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.4.1@learn-rails/gems/puma-3.12.0/lib/puma/server.rb:472:inprocess_client'/Users/marque/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.4.1@learn-rails/gems/puma-3.12.0/lib/puma/server.rb:332:in block in run'/Users/marque/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.4.1@learn-rails/gems/puma-3.12.0/lib/puma/thread_pool.rb:133:inblock in spawn_thread'


development:email_provider_username: email_provider_password: domain_name: example.commailchimp_api_key: mailchimp_list_id: owner_email: secret_key_base: a720feb188850db37612fad94b21e71fb869e9843c6b4da34803f65097b8f0cb30e1b46190ea0838d10dd9860bac3329937981787da4dd20827c95efcaa51ac5


** production:**secret_key_base: email_provider_username: email_provider_password: domain_name: example.commailchimp_api_key: mailchimp_list_id: owner_email: RAILS_ENV=production rake secret


Still the same problem. So I decided to start this project from begining. I did only one diffrence. Previously I create new secret key base via command $ rails secret (I deleted the origin one). And now in the new project I used the origin one created with new rails app ($ rails new . ). And now it works. So probably isn't so easy just generate new key and replace the old one (I restart server and terminal).


This tutorial uses a number of Google Cloud services to provide thedatabase, media storage, and secret storage that support the deployed Railsproject. These services are deployed in a specific region. For efficiency betweenservices, it is best that all services are deployed in the same region.For more information about the closest region to you, seeProducts available by region.


Secrets can be accessed with Rails.application.credentials. For example,Rails.application.credentials.secret_key_base should return theapplication's secret key base andRails.application.credentials.gcp[:db_passsword] should return your databasepassword.


OATH TOTP (Time-based One Time Password) is an open standard that specifies how one-time password (OTP) codes are generated. OATH TOTP can be implemented using either software or hardware to generate the codes. Azure AD doesn't support OATH HOTP, a different code generation standard.


Software OATH tokens are typically applications such as the Microsoft Authenticator app and other authenticator apps. Azure AD generates the secret key, or seed, that's input into the app and used to generate each OTP.


Use your existing secret_key_base from the secret_token.rb initializer toset the SECRET_KEY_BASE environment variable for whichever users running theRails application in production. Alternatively, you can simply copy the existingsecret_key_base from the secret_token.rb initializer to secrets.ymlunder the production section, replacing .


Rails 4.0 introduces ActiveSupport::KeyGenerator and uses this as a base from which to generate and verify signed cookies (among other things). Existing signed cookies generated with Rails 3.x will be transparently upgraded if you leave your existing secret_token in place and add the new secret_key_base.


If you are relying on the ability for external applications or JavaScript to be able to read your Rails app's signed session cookies (or signed cookies in general) you should not set secret_key_base until you have decoupled these concerns.


Rails 4.0 encrypts the contents of cookie-based sessions if secret_key_base has been set. Rails 3.x signed, but did not encrypt, the contents of cookie-based session. Signed cookies are "secure" in that they are verified to have been generated by your app and are tamper-proof. However, the contents can be viewed by end users, and encrypting the contents eliminates this caveat/concern without a significant performance penalty.


nowadays (rails 6) rails generate a secret key base in tmp/development_secret.txt for you. and in production environment the best is having SECRET_KEY_BASE as en env variable, it will get picked up by rails. you can check with Rails.application.secret_key_base.


A Note on Secret Key Base. The key used to encrypt secrets is different from the secret key base. The key on secrets.yml.key is used to encrypt and decrypt all secrets. It does not replace the secret key base. The secret key base is only one of the secrets your app can use. It is however required by Rails.


# Do not keep production secrets in the repository, # instead read values from the environment. production: secret_key_base: This means that Rails recommends you to use an environment variable for the secret_key_base in your production server.


HMAC(Hash-based message authentication code) is a message authentication code that uses a cryptographic hash function such as SHA-256, SHA-512 and a secret key known as a cryptographic key. HMAC is more secure than any other authentication codes as it contains Hashing as well as MAC.


Here we use the HOTP algorithm on the server side to get the OTP-based authentication on the secret key and current unix time. If that OTP is the same as the one typed by the user, then we can enable 2-factor authentication for that user.


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